UNANI BLOOMS AS INDIA’S INDIGENOUS SYSTEM OF MEDICINE
Unani or the science of health and healing is a system of medicine that has blended with India’s tradition and has made it one of the leading countries practicing this form of medicine. The Unani System of medicine originated in Greece around 2500 years ago, and its foundation was laid by the Hippocrates. A tradition of Graeco-Arabic medicine, Unani medicine has a herbo-animo-mineral foundation. In addition to being an original science of medicine, the Unani is also a rich storehouse of philosophies and principles of medicine that holds value to the field of medicine and science in general.
The Arabs are the ones who rendered the Greek Literature of the medicine into their own enhanced system of medicine through their contributions. For the same, they incorporated the concepts of Pathology, Therapeutics, Physics, Chemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Botany, and Surgery. The Unani system of medicine was enriched by Middle East countries and Asian countries owing to the contemporary form of the traditional system. It was the Arabs who introduced the Unani system to India which acquired strong roots within no time. The Delhi Sultans provided patronage Unani Scholars hired some of them as court physicians and state employees.
However, the system suffered a major setback during the British Rule, with the introduction of the Allopathic system. This further resulted in the downfall of the Unani System of medicine, with respect to its education, practice, and research. For about two centuries, the effectiveness of this system faced neglect, just like other traditional forms of medicine. It was the efforts of the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Azizi family in Lucknow, and the Sharifi family in Delhi; that Unani medicine survived the British period. The system saw its revival during the freedom struggle with Hakim Ajmal Khan, who established an Ayurvedic and Unani Tibbia College and Hindustani Dawakhana in the year 1916. It was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi on February 13, 1921, and the Unani system was then patronized by various Princely states. After independence, the Unani system witnessed a boost, along with other forms of traditional medicine. The Government of India took various measures towards the all-round development of this system and established various research institutions, educational institutions, testing laboratories, and hospitals, and hired recognized practitioners. At present, India is one of the leading nations that practice the Unani system of medicines and has the largest number of institutions that focus on Unani education, research, and healthcare. The Unani system of medicine provides treatment of diseases of the entire human body. Unani has proved to be highly effective for treating chronic ailments and diseases of the liver, skin, reproductive systems, musculoskeletal and immunological disorders.
CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN UNANI MEDICINE – CCRUM
CCRUM Research Activities carried out in year 2022
Medicinal Plant Research
5 IMR projects have been completed. 02 IMR Projects have been completed, One EMR project in going on in year 2022. 07 surveys for ‘Collection of medicinal plants’ were initiated in 2022 where 03 have been completed. 02 projects for ‘Documentation & Digitization of Herbarium specimens’ are going on. 04 projects on ‘Cultivation of medicinal plants’ and 05 projects on ‘Maintenance of drug samples’ are going on.
Drug Standardization & Pharmaceutical Research
35 Intra Mural Research projects for Drug Standardization were initiated in 2022 where 20 have been completed. 124 monographs were revised, and report submitted to PCIM&H. Development of SOPs and pharmacopoeial standards of 25 Unani compound formulations were selected where work has been completed for 15 formulations. Revision work of National Formulary of Unani Medicine was completed. Drug sample analysis for 15 drugs were carried out.
Acute and repeated dose (28-day) oral toxicity studies on six Unani formulations (Majoon Piyaz, Triyaqe Afayee, Majoon Ushba, Khamire Gaozabaan Saada, Qurse Mullayin and Cap. Mubarek) were completed at NRIUMSD Hyderabad and RRIUM Srinagar.
Presently, Acute, and sub-acute (28-days repeated dose) toxicity on Sharbat Ejaz, Sharbat Unnab, Sharbat toot Siyah, Itrifal Shahatra, Sufoof Dama Haldi Wala, and Qurs Asfar in progress at NRIUMSD Hyderabad and RRIUM Srinagar.
Validation studies on safety and efficacy of 20 new pharmacopoeial formulations were initiated whereas studies on 50 drugs were continued. Studies on three drugs including Jawarish-e- Bisbasa in Saman-e-Mufrit (Central Obesity), Khamira Banafsha in Sual–e-Yabis (Dry Cough) and Majoone-Piyaz in Surat-e-Inzaal (Premature ejaculation) were completed during the reporting period.
Three new projects have been started in literary Research namely, Urdu translation of Kitab al-Abniya an Haqa’iq alAdvia (Persian), Integration of Unani Medicine into Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMEDCT) and Development of Module 2 of Traditional Medicine chapter for inclusion in International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).
The Urdu translation of Al-Masail Fi’l Tib li’l Mutallimin (Arabic), Monograph on Mental Health and Mental diseases in Unani Medicine, Standard Unani Treatment Guidelines for Hummiyat (Fevers) and Urdu Translation of Al-Mughni fi Tadbir al-Amraz wa Ma’rifa al -Ilal wa al-Amraz (Arabic) have been completed during the reporting period.
Apart from these, Validation studies of the efficacy of Ilaj-bit-Tadbir (Regimenal therapies) viz; Ḥijāma bilā Sharṭ (Dry Cupping), Ḥijāma bi’l Sharṭ (Wet Cupping), Ḥijāma bi’l Nār (Fire Cupping), Ḥijāma Muzliqa (Moving Cupping), Ḥammām al-Bukhār (Steam Bath), Dalk Mu‘tadil (Moderate Massage), Nutūl (Fomentation), Inkibāb (Vaporization) and Venesection (Fasad) in different diseases like Niqris (Gout), Waj-al-Mafasil (Rheumatoid Arthritis), Tahajjur-i Mafasil (Osteoarthritis), Tahajjur-e-fuqrat-e-unuqiya (Cervical Spondylosis), Siman Mufriṭ (Obesity), Shaqīqa (Migraine), Amraz-i Mafasil (Musculoskeletal disorders), Baras (Vitiligo), Da al Sadaf (Psoriasis), Iltihāb Tajāwīf al-Anf (Sinusitis) were continued at different centers of the Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM). During the reporting period a total number of 9882 patients were subjected to these therapies.